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How to add a static IP in Ubuntu 18x

First things first, as sudo run ifconfig and get the ethernet adapter name.  Some are eth0, eth1, ect ect.

Then add a file in /etc/netplan and call it 01-netcfg.yaml

(Make it look something like this:

# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# For more information, see netplan(5).
network:
 version: 2
 renderer: networkd
 ethernets:
   ens33:
     dhcp4: no
     dhcp6: no
     addresses: [192.168.1.2/24]
     gateway4: 192.168.1.1
     nameservers:
       addresses: [8.8.8.8,8.8.4.4]

Save that file and then type netplan apply.

That will do it!

Mac OS X Single User Terminal Commands

Intro to Single-user mode:

To get to single-user mode, hold down the command (i.e. cloverleaf or Apple) and “s” keys as the system begins to boot. This will drop you into a command line interface before the system has fully started up, giving you the chance to check/repair things before much of the normal OS X environment starts up.

Single-user mode starts you with an extremely minimal environment — not only is the normal graphical interface not running, neither are most of the normal system daemons (init and mach-init are the only ones), and the boot disk isn’t even fully mounted! Usually, you want to bring at least a little more of OS X up in order to get anything useful done. Exactly how much depends on what you want to do, but usually you want to either just mount the boot volume for write access, or do that and then start the various system daemons and components (e.g. networking) that make up most of the non-graphical parts of Mac OS X.


Mounting the boot volume for write access:

fsck -y   – Check the boot volume’s file system, and repair if necessary (the “-y” means “Yes, go ahead and fix any problems you find”). Always do this first. Note that this may not be able to fix all problems in a single pass, so if it finds and fixes anything (it’ll print “***** FILE SYSTEM WAS MODIFIED *****”), run it again, and keep running it until it comes back with something like “The volume Macintosh HD appears to be ok.”
Note: If the volume has journalling enabled, you should get a message like

fsck_hfs: Volume is journaled. No checking performed.
fsck_hfs: Use the -f option to force checking.

In this case it should be reasonably safe to go ahead and mount the volume, since the journal should have taken care of any necessary repairs. But I’m paranoid, so I tend to recommend using fsck -yf to force a full check.
See Apple’s TIL article #106214 for more info.

mount -uw /   – Remount the boot volume, enabling write access. You need to do this before you can change anything on disk, but always run fsck first.
Note: if this command works, it won’t give you any output (other than another shell prompt). If it prints something like:
 root_device on / (local, read-only)
devfs on /dev (local)

then you probably mistyped the command.


Starting system daemons and components:

Depending on what you need to accomplish in single-user mode, you may (or may not) need to start up more of the operating system’s normal components (access to disks other than the boot volume, networking, etc). This part of the process works a bit differently depending on what version of Mac OS X you’re using. Under 10.0 through 10.2, the SystemStarter command is all it takes. Under 10.3, you need to register the Mach services, then launch netinfod manually, then finally invoke SystemStarter to finish the job. Under 10.4, it gets easy again: you can use /etc/rc to do the work for you.
After running any of these commands, do not attempt to continue the boot with the exit command. If you aren’t sure what version you have, use sw_vers to find out.

Starting daemons under 10.4:

sh /etc/rc   – Under version 10.4, the normal startup script can be run by hand, and it’ll do the necessary work of getting the system (mostly) up and running, but not exit single-user mode or start the GUI.

Starting daemons under 10.3:

/usr/libexec/register_mach_bootstrap_servers /etc/mach_init.d   – This registers a bunch of programs to be triggered by mach-init, which take care of setting up networking, directory services, disk arbitration, etc. — see the config files in /etc/mach_init.d/ and Apple’s web page on the boot process (look for the section on Bootstrap Daemons) for more information.
Note: after this command finishes, several of the things it triggers will print messages on the screen, possibly mixing in with whatever command you’re trying to type, and making things generally confusing. You can force it to reprint the command you’re working on by typing ^p^n (that is, hold down the control key while pressing “p” and then “n”). Also, one of the messages may imply that lookupd has failed; don’t worry, it seems to get restarted normally.

(cd /var/db/netinfo; netinfod -s local)   – Start up a netinfo server to handle the local domain (i.e. users, groups, etc defined on this computer).

SystemStarter   – Start up more of the system, including networking, NFS, and many background daemons (basically, it runs all of the StartupItems). It does not, however, start the Aqua interface; it leaves you with the single-user command line when it’s done.
Note: this command prints out even more stuff than /usr/libexec/register_mach_bootstrap_servers did. Don’t even try to get a word in edgewise; I just wait until it finishes (it’ll print “Startup complete.”), then press return to get a new command prompt.

Starting daemons under 10.0-10.2:

SystemStarter   – Up through 10.2, this command would take care of starting pretty much everything (except the GUI)… including everything that register_mach_bootstrap_servers and netinfod are needed for under 10.3.


Other Commands useful in Single-user mode:

pico   – Edit text files (see the main entry for ). The second line from the top of the screen may contain gibberish, and the keyboard arrow-keys may not work (use control-characters instead) but other than that it works normally. vi and emacs are also available in single-user mode, although vi seems to have problems with screen updating under at least some versions of OS X.

nicl -raw /var/db/netinfo/local.nidb   – Edit the local Netinfo database (users & groups, etc) without going through the netinfo daemon. Handy if the system can’t boot properly because of a Netinfo configuration problem.
Note: do not use this form of the nicl command after starting the netinfod server (either manually or with SystemStarter).

Examples:

nicl -raw /var/db/netinfo/local.nidb
create disabled
move mounts disabled
quit
Disable the NFS “mounts” directory (by creating a “disabled” directory and moving mounts into it), which can bypass a hang at startup if the computer tries to mount an unavailable NFS server.
nicl -raw /var/db/netinfo/local.nidb
delete /localconfig/autologin username
quit
Disable automatic login at boot time (normally controlled from the Login pane in System Preferences), in order to avoid logging into a damaged account.

bless   – Change the system’s boot settings (the “blessed” system). Useful to switch back to OS 9 if OS X isn’t bootable, and you don’t want to juggle boot CDs.

Example:

bless -folder9 "/System Folder" -use9
Bless the OS-9 system folder named “System Folder” on the current (OS-X) boot volume, and make OS-9 the default for booting from this volume.

tail   – Print the last few entries in a log (or other text file). Useful to find out what happened to get you into this mess.

Examples:

tail /var/log/system.log
print the last screenful of entries from the main system log.
tail -1000 /var/log/system.log | more
print the last 1000 entries from the main system log, using more to display them one screenful at a time (remember: in single-user mode, there’s no way to scroll back like you can in a terminal window).

sw_vers   – Check the operating system version. Useful to find out which procedure to use to start system daemons.


Important files:

/var/db/.AppleSetupDone   – This file, simply by existing, indicates that the computer has had basic setup performed. If you delete this file, the Setup Assistant will run on the next reboot, allowing you to create a new local admin account, re-setup networking, etc.

/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/ (10.3) or
/var/db/SystemConfiguration/ (10.0 – 10.2)   – Despite its generic-sounding name, this directory is actually where most of the computer’s network settings are stored (especially in the file named “preferences.plist”). Moving or renaming this directory will force the OS to build a default set of network settings on the next reboot (i.e. one location named “Automatic”, DHCP on all ethernet & AirPort interfaces, etc). If your network settings get hosed to the point where the computer won’t boot, this is the easy way out.

/Library/Logs/ and
/var/log/   – Where the log files are kept. Generally, logs relating to the core unix (Darwin) parts of the operating system can be found in /var/log/, while the Apple-proprietary system components log to /Library/Logs/. When in doubt, look both places. And check out the main system log, /var/log/system.log — all sorts of interesting events wind up there.
Note: old logs are often archived in gzip (compressed) format; to read these, you can do something like:

zcat /var/log/system.log.1.gz | more
decompress the most recent archived system log, and use more to display it one screenful at a time.

Getting Out of Single-user mode:

exit   – Continue the boot process (i.e. go to multi-user mode). Note that if you’ve made any significant changes (or started any daemons, run SystemStarter, or anything like that), it’s safer to reboot instead.

reboot   – Reboot the computer.

How to Remove Plugins and Extensions on your Mac


If you have browser extensions you’re not using, they can slow down your Mac and sluggish web browsing. Moreover, you can have extensions and plugins you never installed. They just appeared in your browser at some point and you would be lucky if they’re not malware or bloatware. How did it happen? When you browse the web and download stuff from unknown websites, some of them get paid to add extensions to their download items. That’s how you end up with weird add-ons, search bars, ad stripes, trackers, and other useless additions. If you need to quickly disable or remove all the sluggish extensions from all browsers, use CleanMyMac 3. It’s a safe Mac cleaner that lets you remove all add-ons a few clicks.

The difference between add ons, extensions and plugins

Add-ons, extensions, and plugins – what is the difference

While often used interchangeably, these terms are quite different. Let’s make clear what they are first. All of them are pieces of software created to extend the functionality of your browsers. All of them are installed onto a browser and run with it, providing you with additional tools. And all of them don’t come as part of the browser initially because they’re not essential. Now, let’s assess the differences.

Plug-ins or plugins can only change something in the web pages you’re seeing. They cannot install toolbars or provide additional menus in the browser itself.

Extensions are the same as add-ons and they can do all sorts of things, like add stuff into the browser, process and change web pages, etc.

To make it even clearer: an extension can have a plugin inside of it, but not vice versa.

For the most part, extensions (or addons) do a good job of enhancing your browsers or apps in the way you need them to. However, when there’s a too much of them, they are poorly mare or even malicious, you can have troubles.

About extra plugins or unknown extensions

Why it’s vital to steer clear from extra or unknown add-ons

  1. They slow down your browsers.
  2. They slow down your Mac.
  3. Plugins can alter your browser’s behavior.
  4. Plugins can alter the way websites look for you.
  5. Some extensions insert additional advertisement into websites.
  6. Tracking extensions send info about your web behavior to corporations.
  7. They can be harmful and contain malicious code (malware).

Plugins and extensions slow down your Safari

How to manage plugins and add-ons on Mac

Before we proceed to manual removal, it’s worth mentioning that if you need it done fast and safe, it’s much easier with an app. Simply download CleanMyMac 3, click the Extensions tab, and clean up all of the add-ons and plugins you don’t need in Safari, and Firefox. Also, you can disable (but not delete) extensions in Google Chrome browser.

Now, let’s see how you can do it on your own.

How to add and remove Chrome extensions manually

  1. Open Chrome.
  2. Click a small three-dot burger icon in the top-right corner.
  3. More tools > Extensions.
  4. You see a list of Chrome addons you have installed.
  5. You can disable (turn off) or completely remove any of them. To add new extensions, scroll to the bottom of the page and click Get more extensions.

How to add and remove plugins in Firefox manually

  1. Open Firefox.
  2. Click on the burger menu in the top-right corner.
  3. Choose Add-ons.
  4. You can see Extensions and Plugins tabs on the left.
  5. There you can remove or disable them.
  6. To get new extensions, click on Get Add-ons tab.
  7. Scroll to the bottom and choose See more add-ons!

You can also upload an add-on from file. To do this:

  1. Go to Extensions tab.
  2. Click on the gear icon > Install Add-on From File

How to add and remove Safari extensions manually

  1. Open Safari.
  2. Choose Safari > Preferences in the top menu.
  3. Open Extensions tab.
  4. You can now manage your extensions.
  5. To install another one, click on More extensions.

How to remove adware web browser extensions

This is a tricky business. Adware is not as straightforward and simple as the rest of extensions. It’s a piece of malicious code that was created with the sole purpose of showing you advertisement and misleading you to harmful websites. So sometimes it does help to just find the odd-named extension on your list in the browser in question and delete it, but not always.

What can you do if the ads keep popping up or redirecting your every move to some website? How to you remove adware web browser extensions for good? You can try Adblock. It’s a free plugin that works on all browsers and you can access its settings and set a specific website to be blocked from opening in your browser. So the adware won’t be able to redirect you to that place anymore.

Quickly remove add-ons and adware from browser

How to quickly remove add-ons from browser

If you tried to remove extensions manually but your Mac still have troubles working or loading web pages, we suggest using a Mac utility like CleanMyMac. This is the one app you really need if you want to save time. Just upload it and you are ready to go!

CleanMyMac 3’s Extensions allows to remove not only plugins and add-ons that we’ve talked about, but also Widgets, Application Plugins, Preference Panes, Dictionaries, Screen Savers, and Login Items easily.

Apart from ordinary applications, there are quite a lot of other software components on your system, that can be generally described as extensions. This module of CleanMyMac automatically sorts these items into the corresponding groups for you to work with:

  • Widgets

Your small Dashboard apps can be easily disabled or completely removed along with all related data.

  • Login Items

Manage the list of applications that will be automatically launched every time you log in. Sometimes small adware programs also sneak into your startup items without your approval. Preference Panes All of your Preference Panes come with tons of support files spread over the system, which are hard to locate without CleanMyMac.

  • Screen Savers

Removing an unnecessary screen saver correctly is easy with CleanMyMac. However, you can also disable one to make it temporarily unavailable for System Preferences.

  • Dictionaries

Not all the inbuilt Mac OS dictionaries are of any use for you, but they do waste space. You can easily remove unnecessary dictionaries or disable them temporarily.

Check and edit extensions with CleanMyMac

After you have reviewed the lists, you can click the ‘Disable’ button next to virtually any item to isolate it from your system:

Or, you can select items for complete removal using their corresponding checkboxes.

Remember that disabling an extension is an easily-reversible operation, however, if you decide on removing an item completely, you will not be able to undo this action.

If needed, any of the listed items can be added to CleanMyMac’s Ignore List so that it never offers to remove them later.

After you have looked through the sections you found interesting and selected the unwanted items, you can go ahead and use the main Remove button to finalize your work.

Now you know everything there is to know about extensions on Mac and how to deal with them. We hope this guide has been of help.

How to access a USB drive while in Mac single-user mode

After many repeated attempts I was just now able to get the system to boot into hardware test mode with the install CD, but the short test showed no errors, even though the 30 lines are still on the display. The longer test just showed a possible “HDD” error, but I can’t read much of the message (because of the stripes).

I can get the Mac to boot into single-user mode, where I can work at the command line. Peering through the 30 vertical lines, I can see that the hard drive is there, and all of my files are still there, so I thought I’d try to make another backup of them.

For a long time I couldn’t get the iMac to recognize the USB drive I was plugging into the USB port, but after a while I finally figured out the magic formula. Here are the steps I used to get the iMac to recognize the USB drive (thumb drive).

fsck and mount

I recommend not plugging in your USB drive yet. Then boot the system into single-user mode. When you do, you’ll be logged in as root at a command line prompt. (Which seems like a security risk. I could walk into any office, reboot a Mac into single-user mode, then wipe their hard drive. But that’s another story.)

The first things you’re supposed to do are to run these commands:

fsck -fy
mount -uw /

The fsck command takes a while to run, maybe 5 or 10 minutes, although that will vary depending on the size and speed of the drive.

The mount command is necessary because your hard drive is mounted read-only by default, so this re-mounts it in read/write mode.

Run some launchctl commands

Before running the following commands, I recommend running this ls command:

ls /dev/disk*

This shows which disk devices are currently on your system. I’m not logged into my system at the moment, but when I did this on my iMac, I saw three outputs here, all beginning as /dev/disk0. Because I didn’t plug in my USB drive yet, I know those device listings are for the drives already in the computer.

Next, plug in your USB drive. After a few moments you should see some sort of message on screen. With the vertical stripes I can’t really read that message on my monitor, but it’s an indicator that the Mac hardware at least recognized the USB device was plugged in. (I think part of the message showed “USB,” or possibly “USBUHC”.)

If you’re lucky

If you’re lucky, you can run that ls command again, and you might see some new device files:

ls /dev/disk*

If you see new files here, congratulations, you’re in better shape than I was. If so, and assuming that your USB drive is formatted as a Windows/DOS filesystem, just follow these steps to mount the device:

mkdir /Volumes/usb
mount_msdos /dev/disk1s1 /Volumes/usb

If your USB device is formatted differently, use another mount command. I think there’s a command named something like mount_hfs for devices formatted with a Mac filesystem.

Once that’s done, you should be able to see the new filesystem with the df command:

df

Because /Volumes/usb refers to the root directory of your USB device, when you copy files to that directory, you’re actually copying them onto the device. If these steps have worked for you, great, begin copying your files.

If the USB device didn’t show up

In my case, my iMac didn’t immediately create any /dev/disk* device files for my USB drive, so I had to dig deeper. In short, here’s what I had to do. First, per some other websites, I ran these launchctl commands:

launchctl load /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.kextd.plist
launchctl load /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.notifyd.plist
launchctl load /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.configd.plist
launchctl load /System/Library/LaunchDaemon/com.apple.DirectoryServices.plist

Those may have helped, I don’t know. One of them caused the system to start posting information to my display, which combined with the vertical lines was a real pain in the butt.

While that’s what was recommended on other websites, I didn’t see the new /dev/disk* files until I also ran these commands:

launchctl load /System/Library/LaunchDaemon/com.apple.disk*

There are two “com.apple.diskfiles in that directory, and I can’t remember their names now, but the last time I was in my system I just used that command, and it worked fine. Shortly after this, the /dev/disk device files showed up.

Once the /dev/disk* files show up

My system created the new files with names like /dev/disk1s1, and based on information I found on other sites, I thought that was the correct device to mount. So I created my mount point like this:

mkdir /Volumes/usb

and then mounted the USB drive like this:

mount_msdos /dev/disk1s1 /Volumes/usb

After that, I copied all the files I wanted to the /Volumes/usb directory (which is really the filesystem on the USB device), and then unmounted the USB device like this:

umount /dev/disk1s1

Once I saw that the /Volumes/usb result no longer showed up in the output of the df command, I removed my USB drive.

Shutting down the system

I haven’t looked into those plist files yet, but something about loading them was keeping my Mac from being shut down properly. So to shut my system down, I first unloaded all of the plist files like this:

launchctl unload /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.*

At that point I think you can shut down your system by typing exit, but I was trying to do something else next, so I used the reboot command instead.

Other notes

Regarding that mount point, I don’t think there’s anything special about using the Volumes directory. In my younger days as a Unix admin, I’d create a mount point wherever I wanted to, so unless OS X is doing something unique, you can probably create a mount point wherever you want.

As mentioned at the beginning of this article, these notes pertain to a 2008 model iMac running Mac OS X 10.6.x. Other Mac operating systems are probably at least slightly different.

Summary

I hope these notes have been helpful, and will save you a little time. I know they would have saved me several hours if I knew about all of this last night.

macOS Sierra: Transfer files between two computers using target disk mode

If you have two Mac computers with FireWire or Thunderbolt ports, you can connect them so that one of them appears as an external hard disk on the other. This is called target disk mode.

  1. Connect the two computers with a FireWire or Thunderbolt cable.
  2. On the Mac you want to use as the disk in target disk mode, do one of the following:
    • If the computer is off, start it up while holding down the T key.
    • If the computer is on, choose Apple menu > System Preferences, click Startup Disk, then click Target Disk Mode.

      When the computer has started up, a disk icon appears on the desktop of the other computer.

  3. Transfer files by dragging them to and from the disk.
  4. Eject the disk by dragging its icon to the Trash.

    While you drag, the Trash icon changes to an Eject icon.

  5. On the Mac you used as a disk, push the power button to shut it down, then disconnect the cable.

How to Use OS X Boot Options to Troubleshoot Your Mac

There are times when your Mac may misbehave and refuse to boot into OS X.

There are times when your Mac may misbehave and refuse to boot into OS X. You may get a sad Mac face, an audible beep, or another ailment keeping your Mac from properly booting. When this happens, you can troubleshoot your Mac by using boot options to run an Apple Hardware Test, or booting with extensions disabled. Sometimes, launching your Mac this way can help save you a trip to the Apple Store.

Don’t panic when this happens to your Mac. Instead, turn to this guide in which we explain all of the various boot options in OS X that may help return your Mac to normal.

1. Press C During Startup

Booting from a CD? You can hold down the C key on your keyboard to instantly boot to a Mac OS X or other bootable disc in your Mac.

2. Press D During Startup

Apple’s Hardware Test utility is usually run by booting from a disc that came with your computer. With the introduction of Intel-based Macs, however, Apple has built the AHT utility right into your Mac. Simply hold down the D key while starting up your Mac to boot into the Apple Hardware Test.

3. Press Option + Command + P + R

Sometimes on a Mac, the PRAM (parameter RAM) and NVRAM (non-volatile RAM) can become corrupt and cause various problems. These two memory areas store settings and information that is not cleared whenever you turn off your Mac’s power.

To do this, you’ll want to turn off your Mac, and then turn it back on while holding down the Command + Option + P + R keys. Hold the keys down until the computer restarts and you hear the startup sound for the second time. Release the keys after you hear the second startup chime. The PRAM will be reset.

4. Press Option During Startup

Holding down the Option key during startup will show you a boot screen with all bootable devices listed. You can use the mouse or the keyboard to select a device to boot into.

This is great for those times when your main installation of OS X isn’t working correctly and you need to boot into a bootable mirror of your OS X install.

5. Press Eject, F12, or Hold Down Mouse/Trackpad Button

Sometimes discs can get stuck in your optical drive. When you cannot seem to get them out, you may panic, but just try restarting while holding down either the Eject key, F12 key, or your mouse or trackpad button. Your disc will be ejected in a flash after doing this.

6. Press N During Startup

If your setup includes a compatible network server (NetBoot), you can hold down the N key during startup to attempt a network boot. You can optionally use the Option + N keys during startup to start from a NetBoot server using the default boot image provided.

7. Press T During Startup

Target Disk Mode is a great way to retrieve your files from your Mac if your machine refuses to boot properly. Sometimes it’s best to just retrieve those files and start fresh with a clean copy of OS X. Follow our guide on Target Disk Mode for more information on how it works.

8. Press Shift During Startup

OS X includes a boot option called Safe Mode. Start up your machine while holding down the Shift key to have OS X only load required kernel extensions and login items. It will disable all non system fonts, all startup items, and login items.

This Safe Mode feature is a great way to troubleshoot OS X applications and extensions that aren’t working properly. If you are having OS X boot problems, always try this first to check and see if you have a rogue piece of software preventing your Mac from booting properly. Check out this article for more information about booting into Safe Mode.

9. Press Command + V During Startup

Command + V boots your Mac into what is called Verbose Mode. Using this key combination will cause your Mac to become very verbose on startup and will show a terminal-like interface while booting. It will contain information important to startup, allowing you to diagnose startup problems by seeing any errors that may be occurring during startup. Verbose mode exits automatically when the computer’s startup process progresses sufficiently and the blue screen appears.

10. Press Command + S During Startup

Holding down Command + S during startup will boot your Mac into Single User Mode. This is a terminal interface that allows you to login and interact with your computer via text input only. No graphical interface will be loaded. This mode is good for when you need to troubleshoot a startup issue, or modify a file or application that is preventing proper startup.

11. Press Command + R During Startup

If your system contains Mac OS X Lion, then you’re in luck because it has all of the necessary restore features built right in. Just hold down Command + R during startup to boot into Lion Recovery Mode – a complete copy of the Lion installer disc. In this mode, you can use Safari to browse the web for any possible boot problem solutions, perform a system restore, or format the drive using Disk Utility.

How to reset the SMC on Mac notebooks

How to reset the SMC on Mac notebooks

To reset the SMC on a Mac notebook, first determine whether the battery is removable. Most older Mac notebooks have removable batteries. Mac notebooks that have nonremovable batteries include MacBook Pro (Early 2009 and later), all models of MacBook Air, MacBook (Late 2009), and MacBook (Retina, 12-inch, Early 2015 and later). Learn more about Mac notebook batteries.

If the battery is nonremovable:

  1. Choose Apple menu > Shut Down.
  2. After your Mac shuts down, press Shift-Control-Option on the left side of the built-in keyboard, then press the power button at the same time. Hold these keys and the power button for 10 seconds. If you have a MacBook Pro with Touch ID, the Touch ID button is also the power button.
  3. Release all keys.
  4. Press the power button again to turn on your Mac.

If the battery is removable:

  1. Shut down your Mac.
  2. Remove the battery. If you need help removing the battery, contact an Apple Authorized Service Provider or Apple Retail Store.
  3. Press and hold the power button for 5 seconds.
  4. Reinstall the battery.
  5. Press the power button again to turn on your Mac.